UNIT 4 – IELTS READING CHO NGƯỜI BẮT ĐẦU: DẠNG ĐỀ MATCHING SENTENCE ENDINGS & MATCHING FEATURES

Ở bài học này, chúng ta sẽ cùng tìm hiểu dạng đề Matching Sentence Endings & Matching Features của IELTS Reading. Bài viết bao gồm những kiến thức quan trọng, các mẹo và chiến lược hữu ích chắc chắn sẽ giúp các bạn tự tin chinh phục dạng đề này! 

I. Tổng quan về dạng đề Matching Sentence Endings & Matching Features

1. Matching Sentence Endings

  • Bạn sẽ có hai danh sách: danh sách các câu chưa hoàn chỉnh và danh sách các phần kết thúc câu. Nhiệm vụ của bạn là nối các ý để tạo thành câu hoàn chỉnh giống với nội dung được trình bày trong bài đọc.

MATCHING SENTENCE ENDINGS

2. Matching Features (Categorization Questions)

  • Có 2 dang Matching Features
  • Dạng 1: số lượng options nhiều hơn số lượng câu hỏi, mỗi đáp án chỉ được dùng duy nhất 1 lần
  • Dạng 2: số lượng options ít hơn số lượng câu hỏi, mỗi đáp án được sử dụng nhiều hơn 1 lần. 
  • Đề bài có thể đưa ra 1 loạt các statements và yêu cầu bạn phân loại các statements với thông tin phù hợp

MATCHING SENTENCE ENDINGS

Xem thêm: Lộ trình học IELTS cho người mới bắt đầu từ 0 – 7.0+ trong vòng 150 buổi

II. Chiến lược làm bài dạng đề Matching Sentence Endings & Matching Features

1. Bước 1: Đọc kĩ yêu cầu đề

Các hướng dẫn trong đề thi sẽ cho bạn biết bạn phải hoàn thành bao nhiêu câu hỏi cũng như thông tin mà bạn phải tìm hiểu.

MATCHING SENTENCE ENDINGS

→ Số câu hỏi: 6

→ Dạng đề: Matching Sentence Endings

2. Bước 2: Đọc các câu chưa hoàn thiện và gạch chân từ khóa

A new study from Cambridge University has actually…

Keywords: “A new study from Cambridge University has actually

3. Bước 3: Sử dụng từ khóa để xác định đoạn văn trả lời câu hỏi

  • Chú ý đến các từ khóa unchangeable như names, dates, numbers, academic terms ở câu hỏi để tìm kiếm trong bài đọc. 

Example: 

Researchers like Colton don’t believe it is right to measure machine creativity directly to that of humans who have had millennia to develop our skills. Others, though, are fascinated by the prospect that a computer might create something as original and subtle as our best artists. So far, only one has come close. Composer David Cope invented a program called Experiments in Musical Intelligence, or EMI.

Not only did EMI create compositions in Cope’s style, but also that of the most revered classical composers, including Bach, Chopin and Mozart. Audiences were moved to tears, and EMI even fooled classical music experts into thinking they were hearing genuine Bach. Not everyone was impressed, however. Some, such as Wiggins, have blasted Cope’s work as pseudoscience and condemned him for his deliberately vague explanation of how the software worked. Meanwhile, Douglas Hofstadter of Indiana University said EMI created replicas which still rely completely on the original artist’s creative impulses. When audiences found out the truth they were often outraged with Cope, and one music lover even tried to punch him. Amid such controversy, Cope destroyed EMI’s vital databases.

(Cambridge Practice Tests for IELTS 13, Test 1)

Question: Geraint Wiggins criticized Cope for not …

→ Keywords: “Geraint Wiggins criticized Cope for not

Unchangeable keywords: “Geraint Wiggins”, “Cope”

Scan đoạn văn:

“Composer David Cope invented a program called Experiments in Musical Intelligence, or EMI. Not only did EMI create compositions in Cope’s style, but also that of the most revered classical composers, including Bach, Chopin and Mozart.”

“Some, such as Wiggins, have blasted Cope’s work as pseudoscience, and condemned him for his deliberately vague explanation of how the software worked.”

“When audiences found out the truth they were often outraged with Cope, and one music lover even tried to punch him. Amid such controversy, Cope destroyed EMI’s vital databases.”

→ Câu trả lời có thể xuất hiện trong đoạn văn do có nhiều từ khóa xuất hiện. 

4. Bước 4: Đọc danh sách các endings và gạch chân từ khóa

Example

  1. The memorable nature of some tunes can help other learning processes.
  2. Music may not always be stored in the memory in the form of seperate notes.
  3. People may have started to make music because of their need to remember things.
  4. Having a song going round your head happen to you more often when one part of the brain is tired.

→ Keywords:

  1. The memorable nature of some tunes can help other learning processes.
  2. Music may not always be stored in the memory in the form of separated notes.
  3. People may have started to make music because of their need to remember things.
  4. Having a song going round your head happens to you more often when one part of the brain is tired.”

5. Bước 5: So sánh từ khóa ở câu hỏi với từ khóa trong đoạn văn và chọn đáp án đúng

Xem thêm: Khóa học IELTS 7.0+ trọn gói, cam kết đầu ra bằng văn bản

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III. Ví dụ và hướng dẫn làm bài

Example 1: Matching Sentence Endings

MATCHING SENTENCE ENDINGS

1. Bước 1: Đọc kĩ yêu cầu đề

→ Số câu hỏi: 2  

→ Dạng đề: Matching Sentence Endings

2. Bước 2: Đọc câu đầu tiên và gạch chân từ khóa

Keywords: “1 Ben Finney’s main academic work investigates the way that”

Unchangeable keywords: “Ben Finney”

3. Bước 3: Xác định đoạn văn phù hợp chứa từ khóa

“In 1993, University of Hawaii’s anthropologist Ben Finney, who for much of his career has studied the technology once used by Polynesians to colonize islands in the Pacific, suggested that it would not be premature to begin thinking about the archaeology of Russian and American aerospace sites on the Moon and Mars.”

→ Câu này có thể chứa thông tin trả lời câu hỏi do có xuất hiện từ khóa “Ben Finney”. Ngoài ra, có những từ đồng nghĩa với từ khóa xuất hiện trong đoạn này.

  • much of his career = main academic work
  • studied = investigates

4. Bước 4: Đọc các endings và gạch chân từ khóa

→ Keywords:

  1. activities of tourists and scientists have harmed the environment.
  2. some sites in space could be important in the history of space exploration.
  3. vehicles used for tourism have polluted the environment.
  4. it may be unclear who has responsibility for historic human footprints.
  5. past explorers used technology in order to find new places to live.”

5. Bước 5: So sánh từ khóa trong phần endings với từ khóa trong đoạn văn để xác định thông tin trả lời câu hỏi

  • past explorers = Polynesians
  • find new places to live = colonize islands in the Pacific

→ Đáp án: E

6. Bước 6: Lặp lại các bước trên để trả lời câu hỏi tiếp theo

→ Keywords:2 Ben Finney thought that in the long term

Unchangeable keywords: “Ben Finney”

–  Xác định câu văn chứa keywords: Finney pointed out that … archaeologists someday study off-Earth sites to trace the development of humans in space. He realized that it was unlikelyin the near future, but he was convinced that one day such work would be done.”

–  So sánh từ khóa trong câu hỏi và từ khóa trong đoạn văn:

  • some sites in space = off-Earth sites
  • important in the history of space exploration = trace the development of humans in space.

→ Đáp án: B

Example 2: Matching Features

The loss of shade-coffee forests has so alarmed a number of North American wildlife organisations that they’re now harnessing consumer power to help save these threatened habitats. They are promoting a ‘certification’ system that can indicate to consumers that the beans have been grown on shade plantations. Bird-friendly coffee, for instance, is marketed by the Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center. The idea is that the small extra cost is passed directly on to the coffee farmers as a financial incentive to maintain their shade-coffee farms.

Not all conservationists are with such measures, however. Some say certification could be leading to the loss – not preservation – of natural forests. John Rappole of the Smithsonian Conservation and Research Center, for example, argues that shade-grown marketing provides ‘an incentive to convert existing areas of primary forest that are too remote or steep to be convened profitably to other forms of cultivation into shade-coffee plantations’.

Other conservationists, such as Stacey Philpott and colleagues, argue the cast for shade coffee. But there are different types of shade growing. Those used by subsistence farmers are virtually identical to natural forest (and have a corresponding diversity), while systems that use coffee

plants as the understorey and cacao or citrus trees as the overstorey may be no more diverse than full-sun farms. Certification procedures need to distinguish between the two, and Ms Philpott argues that as long as the process is rigorous and offers financial gains to the producers, shade growing does benefit the environment.

Questions 1-2

Match each option to the person credited with it.

Write the correct letter A-E in boxes 1-2 on your answer sheet.

NB You can write any letter more than once.

  1. Encouraging shade growing may lead to garmers using the natural forest for their plantations.
  2. If shade-coffee farms match the right criteria, they can be good for wildlife.

List of people

A Alex MunroeB Paul DonaldC Robert Rice
D John RappoleE Stacey Philpott


1. Bước 1: Đọc kĩ yêu cầu đề

→ Số câu hỏi: 2  

→ Dạng đề: Matching Features

2. Bước 2: Xác định vị trí của tên riêng từ A-E ở trong bài đọc

  • “Other conservationists, such as Stacey Philpott and colleagues, argue the cast for shade coffee Ms Philpott argues that as long as the process is rigorous and offers financial gains to the producers, shade growing does benefit the environment.”
  • John Rappole of the Smithsonian Conservation and Research Center, for example, argues that shade-grown marketing provides ‘an incentive to convert existing areas of primary forest that are too remote or steep to be converted profitably to other forms of cultivation into shade-coffee plantations’.”

3. Bước 3: Đọc danh sách các statements và gạch chân từ khóa

→ Keywords:

  1. Encouraging shade growing may lead to farmers using the natural forest for their plantations.
  2. If shade-coffee farms match the right criteria, they can be good for wildlife.

4. Bước 4: So sánh các từ khóa và chọn đáp án đúng

  • Question 1:
  • encouraging shade growing = shade-grown marketing
  • lead to = provides ‘an incentive’
  • natural forest = primary forest
  • shade-coffee plantations = their plantations

→ Đáp án: D 

  • Question 2:
  • the process = shade-coffee farms
  • rigorous and offers financial gains to the producers = match the right criteria
  • does benefit = good
  • environment = wildlife

→ Đáp án: E

Xem thêm: Ưu đãi học phí lên đến 45% khi đăng ký khóa học IELTS ngay hôm nay

IV. Bài tập

1. Bài tập 1

If the soil loses its ability to perform these functions, the human race could be in big trouble. The danger is not that the soil will disappear completely, but that the microorganisms that give it its special properties will be lost. And once this has happened, it may take the soil thousands of years to recover.

Agriculture is by far the biggest problem. In the wild, when plants grow they remove nutrients

from the soil, but then when the plants die and decay these nutrients are returned directly to the soil. Humans tend not to return unused parts of harvested crops directly to the soil to enrich it, meaning that the soil gradually becomes less fertile. In the past we developed strategies to get around the problem, such as regularly varying the types of crops grown, or leaving fields uncultivated for a season.

But these practices became inconvenient as populations grew and agriculture had to be run on more commercial lines. A solution came in the early 20th century with the Haber-Bosch process for manufacturing ammonium nitrate.

Farmers have been putting this synthetic fertiliser on their fields ever since. But over the past few decades, it wasn’t such a bright idea. Chemical fertilisers can release polluting nitrous oxide into the atmosphere and excess is often washed away with the rain, releasing nitrogen into rivers. More recently, we have found that indiscriminate use of fertilizers the soil itself, turning it acidic and salty, and degrading the soil they supposed to nourish.

 

Questions 1-2

Complete each sentence with the correct ending A-F from the box. Write the correct letter A-F in boxes 1-2 on your answer sheet.

  1. Nutrients contained in the unused parts of harvested crops
  2. Synthetic fertilisers produced with the Haber-Bosch process
  • may improve the number and quality of plants growing there.
  • may contain data from up to nine countries.
  • may not be put back into the soil.
  • may help governments to be more aware of soil-related issues.
  • may cause damage to different aspects of the environment.
  • may be better for use at a global level.

Đáp án

  1. C
  1. E

Giải thích chi tiết

QuestionsAnswersExplanation
  1. Nutrients contained in the unused parts of harvested crops
C. may not be put back into the soil.Paragraph 2

“Humans tend not to return unused parts of harvested crops directly to the soil to enrich it, meaning that the soil gradually becomes less fertile.”

  • put back = return
  1. Synthetic fertilisers produced with the Haber-Bosch process
E. may cause damage to different aspects of the environment.Paragraph 4 

“Chemical fertilisers can release polluting nitrous oxide into the atmosphere and excess is often washed away with the rain, releasing nitrogen into rivers. More recently, we have found that indiscriminate use of fertilizers the soil itself,..”

  • Synthetic fertilisers = Chemical fertilisers
  • cause damage = release polluting nitrous oxide
  • different aspects of the environment = atmosphere, rivers, soil.

2. Bài tập 2

Young Children’s Sense Of Identity

According to James, a child’s first step on the road to self-understanding can be seen as the recognition that he or she exists. This is an aspect of the self that he labelled ‘self-as-subject’, and he gave it various elements. These included an awareness of one’s own agency (i.e. one’s power to act), and an awareness of one’s distinctiveness from other people. These features gradually emerge as infants explore their world and interact with caregivers. Cooley (1902) suggested that a sense of the self-as-subject was primarily concerned with being able to exercise power. He proposed that the earliest examples of this are an infant’s attempts to control physical objects, such as toys or his or her own limbs. This is followed by attempts to affect the behaviour of other people. For example, infants learn that when they cry or smile someone responds to them. Cooley and other researchers suggested a close connection between a person’s own understanding of their identity and other people’s understanding of it. Cooley believed that people build up their sense of identity from the reactions of others to them, and from the view they believe others have of them. He called the self-as-object the ‘looking-glass self’, since people come to see themselves as they are reflected in others. Mead (1934) went even further, and saw the self and the social world as inextricably bound together: ‘The self is essentially a social structure, and it arises in social experience … it is impossible to conceive of a self arising outside of social experience.’

Questions 1-2

Look at the following statements (Questions 1-2) and the list of researchers below. Match each option to the person credited with it.

Write the correct letter A-E in boxes 1-2 on your answer sheet.

  1. A sense of identity can never be formed without relationships with other people
  2. A child’s awareness of self is related to a sense of mastery over things and people.
List of Researchers
A JamesB CooleyC Lewis and Brooks-Gunn
D MeadE  Bronson

Đáp án

  1. D
  1. B

Giải thích chi tiết

QuestionsAnswersExplanation
  1. A sense of identity can never be formed without relationships with other people.
DMead (1934) went even further, and saw the self and the social world as inextricably bound together: ‘The self is essentially a social structure, and it arises in social experience … it is impossible to conceive of a self arising outside of social experience.’

  • social experience = relationships with other people.
  1. A child’s awareness of self is related to a sense of mastery over things and people.
BCooley (1902) suggested that a sense of the self-as- subject was primarily concerned with being able to exercise power. He proposed that the earliest examples of this are an infant’s attempts to control physical objects, such as toys or his or her own limbs. This is followed by attempts to affect the behaviour of other people.

  • exercise power = mastery over things and people.

Hi vọng thông qua Unit 4, các bạn đã nắm được cách làm dạng đề Matching Sentence Endings & Matching Features của IELTS Reading để làm bài hiệu quả. 

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