Causes and Solutions/Causes and Effects essay IELTS là dạng bài thí sinh thường xuyên gặp và gây nhiều vướng mắt trong bài thi IELTS Writing task 2. Dạng bài này yêu cầu nêu ra các cause (nguyên nhân), effect (tác động) hoặc solution (giải pháp) của một vấn đề xã hội nào đấy.
I. Cách nhận biết dạng bài Cause and Solution/Cause and Effect essay IELTS
Ngược lại Task 1 (Academic), đề bài Task 2 phần Writing sẽ yêu cầu thí sinh đưa ra quan điểm về những vấn đề trong xã hội hoặc các vấn đề cá nhân thường gặp trong cuộc sống hằng ngày. Trong Task 2, bạn có thể bắt gặp các dạng đề sau đây:
- Dạng đề Argumentative/ Agree or Disagree Essay (Opinion essay)
- Dạng đề Advantages/ Disadvantages Essay
- Dạng đề Causes and Effects/ Causes and Solutions/ Problems and Solutions Essay
Cause and Solution/Cause and Effect essay IELTS là dạng bài nêu một vấn đề và yêu cầu chúng ta phải đưa ra những nguyên nhân dẫn đến vấn đề đó, và các ảnh hưởng của vấn đề đó đối với một đối tượng nhất định/giải pháp để khắc phục vấn đề được đưa ra.
Cùng điểm qua một số đề thi của các năm trước nhé:
- These days, people in some countries are living in a ‘throw-away’ society which means they use things in a short time then throw the things away. What are the causes and the impacts this trend can have? => Cause and Effect IELTS essay (Đề thi tháng 5/2018)
- Cycling is more environmentally-friendly than other forms of transport. Why is it not popular in many places? How to increase its popularity? => Cause & Solution (Đề thi tháng 11/2018)
II. Lên ý tưởng cho bài viết Causes and Solutions/Causes and Effects essay IELTS
Việc đầu tiên bạn cần làm sau khi đã nhận diện dạng bài, đó là lên ý tưởng viết bài bằng cách nghĩ trước 2-3 causes (nguyên nhân), effects (ảnh hưởng), solutions (giải pháp) có thể có của vấn đề mà bạn sắp viết.
1. Brainstorming tìm Cause (nguyên nhân)
Các vấn đề trong dạng bài Causes/Effects/Solutions chủ yếu xoay quanh đời sống thường ngày, thói quen sinh hoạt và phong tục tập quán của con người. Vì con người chính là nguồn gốc gây ra các vấn đề trong xã hội. Hãy vận dụng kiến thức xã hội của bạn và tìm ra những nguyên nhân phù hợp nhất nhé!
2. Brainstorming tìm Effect (ảnh hưởng)
Những vấn đề trong bài thi viết IELTS Writing Task 2 luôn đem lại ảnh hưởng tiêu cực/ tích cực đến chủ yếu 3 đối tượng là Individuals (Cá nhân), Society (Xã hội) hoặc Government (Chính phủ). Tương ứng với mỗi vấn đề, các đối tượng sẽ bị tác động bởi nhiều khía cạnh khác nhau.
Sau khi điểm qua tất cả các mục trên, bạn hãy chọn lọc những ý quan trọng và phù hợp với vấn đề nhất. Vì tùy theo vấn đề mà 3 đối tượng sẽ bị ảnh hưởng ở mức độ khác nhau. Vậy nên hãy ưu tiên chọn cái có nhiều ý để viết nhất và “đắt giá” nhất với vấn đề bạn nhé!
3. Brainstorming tìm Solutions (giải pháp)
Mỗi đối tượng sẽ có những giải pháp cho các vấn đề ở những quy mô khác nhau. Vì vậy, bạn chỉ cần chọn ra những giải pháp “đắt giá” và chuẩn xác nhất thôi nhé!
Viết ra giấy tất cả những ý tưởng mà bạn vừa nghĩ ra, để tránh bị lãng quên ngay sau đó. Bạn nên tìm hiểu thêm các thông tin từ mạng xã hội, sách, báo,… để mở rộng kiến thức từ nhiều khía cạnh khác nhau trong cuộc sống.
III. Cấu trúc phổ biến của dạng bài Cause and Solution/Cause and Effect essay IELTS
Thông thường các bài viết trong IELTS Writing Task 2 dù ở dạng nào cũng đều được chia thành bốn đoạn lớn, bao gồm:
- Introduction (Mở bài),
- Body (Hai đoạn thân bài)
- Conclusion (Kết bài).
Cấu trúc chi tiết cho từng loại essay cụ thể như sau:
1. Cause and Effect
E.g: Today more people are overweight than ever before. What in your opinion are the primary causes of this? What are the main effects of this epidemic?
Hãy viết phần này bằng 2 câu ngắn gọn và súc tích, đảm bảo nhiệm vụ tổng quát của một phần mở bài:
- Sentence 1 – paraphrase lại đề bài (bạn có thể dùng “nowadays/today/these days” để mở đầu bài viết)
“These days, the number of overweight people is constantly growing.”
- Sentence 2 – đề cập đến vấn đề bạn định nói trong bài viết của mình:
“This essay will discuss the main reasons for this epidemic and then describe the possible effects of the problem.”
Body paragraph 1 – Causes
- Sentence 1 – trình bày những nguyên nhân chính của bệnh béo phì:
“In my opinion, the foremost causes of obesity are inactive lifestyle and unhealthy eating habits.”
- Sentence 2 – 3 – khai thác chi tiết luận điểm đầu tiên. Hãy tưởng tượng rằng giám khảo của bạn là một người không hề có hiểu biết gì về lĩnh vực này và nhiệm vụ của bạn là giải thích, phân tích chi tiết cho ho.
“Today more and more people rely on cars instead of walking, have less physical demands at work and prefer inactive leisure activities. This results in burning less calories and gaining weight.”
- Sentence 4 – 5 – đi vào phân tích luận điểm thứ 2. Đừng quên đưa ra các ví dụ, dẫn chứng cụ thế nhé! Việc này rất quan trọng đó!
“Moreover, the problem is accentuated by the growing number of people, who eat irregularly and consume large portions of high-calorie food. For example, about 5-% of the adult population in Europe with so-called disordered eating suffer from obesity.”
Body paragraph 2 – Effects
- Sentence 2.1 – nêu ra toàn bộ những ảnh hưởng có thể có của vấn đề:
“The possible effects of this problem include physical health problems and loss of productivity.”
- Sentences 2 – 3 – phân tích chi tiết ảnh hưởng đầu tiền và đưa ra ví dụ:
“First of all, obesity results in in correct functioning of the human body and contributes to the risk of developing some chronic illnesses. For example, as body fat percentage increases, the person’s metabolism worsens, which in turn may result in diabetes or heart diseases.”
- Sentences 4 – 6- phân tích chi tiết ảnh hưởng thứ 2 và đưa ra ví dụ:
“Seconly, overweight people are very unhealthy and often suffer from stress and tiredness. This lessens their work capacity and results in lower productivity. For example, it has been proven that an obese person needs to put more effort to complete some task than a person with normal weight.”
Trong phần kết luận, bạn cần đề cập để nhận mạnh lại vấn đề mà bài viết đang bàn luận tới, tóm tắt và tổng quát lại các nguyên nhân, ảnh hưởng mà bạn đã viết trong bài.
“To sum up, obesity is a big problem that affects a lot of people nowadays. It’s mainly caused by inactive lifestyle and eating disorders and results in severe health problems and loss of productivity.”
2. Cause and Solution
E.g: Students leave high school without learning how to manage their money.
- Paraphrase đề bài: students leave high school = highs school graduates, manage honey = skills in money management.
- Câu trả lời: This essay will outline a number of reasons for this trend and a number of possible solutions to help tackle the issue.
Body paragraph 1 – Causes: Đưa ra nguyên nhân
- Sentence 1: Câu chủ đề: High school graduate’ lack of money management skills in attributed to various factors.
- Sentence 2: Nguyên nhân thứ nhất: do học sinh cấp 3 thường sống với gia đình và phụ thuộc tài chính vào bố mẹ.
- Sentence 3: Kết quả cho nguyên nhân thứ nhất: Từ đó, họ không nhận thức được tầm quan trọng của việc kiếm tiền và tiết kiệm tiền.
- Sentence 4: Nguyên nhân thứ hai: Tiền mà học sinh cấp 3 thường được nhận là tiền tiêu vặt.
- Sentence 5: Kết quả cho nguyên nhân thứ hai: Do đó, họ chỉ có thói quen tiêu tiền chứ không thể học được cách quản lý và tiết kiệm tiền.
Paraphrase câu trả lời: In conclusion, there are main contributors to the problem, and several measures are suggested to put an end to the situation.
IV. Từ vựng và cấu trúc ngữ pháp hay có thể áp dụng trong bài
- A cause of/ A reason for
- Leads to/ give rise to/ brings about
- To be affected/influenced by
- To be caused by/ produced by/ result from
- To be a consequence of/ to be a result of/ to be due to/ the effect of.
- As a result of/ as a consequence of
- Consequently/ thus/ therefore/ hence/ for this reason
- Owing to/ On account of/ Because of/ Due to the fact that
- One of the causes/ The reason is that
- Because/ Since/As
- Due to this/Because of/ Owing to/ Lead to
- As a result/ Lead to the problem/ Can attribute to
- Make/ Create/ Change/ Effect/ Affect/ Result
- Risk of/ Leading to
V. Những bài mẫu của dạng Cause and Solution/Cause and Effect essay IELTS
1. Sample essay cho dạng bài Cause and Solution chủ đề: Transportation
Đề bài: Cyclists and car drivers sharing the same road cause some problems. What are the problems? What are the solutions?
The co-existence of bicycles and cars on the same road in many parts of the world can be risky and cause disruptions to traffic flow. This essay will explore the problems that arise from this issue and discuss various solutions to minimize the negative consequences.
The primary concern with bicycles and cars sharing the road is that it can interrupt the normal flow of traffic. The difference in speed between these two modes of transportation can create issues when a vehicle needs to turn or when a high-speed car needs to overtake a slow-moving bicycle. This is particularly common in countries that do not have designated bike lanes, such as Vietnam. Car drivers can become frustrated when they encounter a slow-moving bicycle on the road, and the speed discrepancy can increase the risk of accidents for cyclists. In case of an accident, cyclists are at a greater risk because they lack the protective equipment that cars have, such as seat belts and airbags. This makes it imperative to address the issue of bicycles and cars sharing the same road.
Fortunately, several remedies exist to address this problem. Firstly, authorities should create separate bike lanes on the road to ensure smooth traffic flow and avoid congestion due to speed differences. Secondly, law enforcement officers should adopt strict regulations pertaining to cycling laws, safety requirements, and dispute resolution in case of accidents between bikes and cars. By enforcing these regulations, cyclists and car drivers can learn appropriate driving behaviors and coexist safely on the road.
In conclusion, the co-existence of bicycles and cars on the same road can pose risks and disrupt traffic flow. Therefore, it is crucial for authorities to implement measures such as creating cycling lane systems and enforcing driving laws to ensure safer traffic for both car and bicycle users.
2. Sample essay cho dạng bài Cause and Solution chủ đề: International tourism
Đề bài: Many people believe that international tourism is a bad thing for their country. What are the reasons? Solutions to change negative attitudes?
Local residents often develop a negative attitude towards international tourism due to its impact on social balance and cultural misunderstandings. To change this perception, authorities should consider implementing a tax on tourist services and organizing cultural exchange events.
There are two main reasons for the hostility felt by locals towards international tourism. One reason is the potential threat it poses to social cohesion within the community, as some may benefit more than others from providing services to foreign tourists. This income gap can create a sense of disadvantage among those who earn less, leading to a negative attitude towards tourists. Additionally, cultural differences between visitors and locals can unintentionally create conflicts, such as the example of a Japanese waiter feeling dishonored if an American tourist leaves a tip.
To change this negative perception towards international tourism, authorities can introduce new taxation schemes on tourism-related services and use the funds to invest in other industries to benefit all residents equally. Furthermore, free cultural exchange programs can be implemented to foster mutual cultural understanding between locals and visitors, which can help mitigate cultural differences.
In conclusion, local citizens’ negative perception of international tourism is often due to cultural misunderstandings and loss of social cohesion. Implementing a new tax on tourist services and organizing cultural exchange events can be effective in changing this perception.
3. Sample essay cho dạng bài Cause and Solution chủ đề: Natural resources
Đề bài: The world’s natural resources are consumed at an ever-increased rate. What are the causes of this situation? What are the solutions?
The excessive consumption of natural resources has become a major cause of concern, driven by various factors including high energy demands and reliance on natural resources in developing nations. To address this issue, specific actions need to be taken such as producing environmentally-friendly products and utilizing alternative energy sources.
The overuse of natural resources can be attributed to various causes, including the significant demand for resources in developing countries like China and Brazil. As these countries become more prosperous, their citizens tend to consume resources at a higher rate, such as the widespread use of cars among the middle class in China. Another contributing factor is the over-dependence on natural resources in less developed nations, such as the burning of coal for electricity generation in Vietnam.
To mitigate the overconsumption of natural resources, practical measures can be implemented. One such measure is to reduce demand for resources in developing countries by manufacturing energy-efficient products like hybrid cars and selling them at affordable prices. This would allow people in these countries to maintain their standard of living without over-consuming resources. Another solution is to rely on alternative sources of energy like wind, tidal, nuclear, and solar power, which have been proven to be efficient and effective in energy production.
In conclusion, the excessive consumption of natural resources is driven by high demand in developing countries and reliance on these resources. To combat this issue, measures such as reducing demand and utilizing alternative energy sources should be taken to ensure a sustainable future.
4. Sample essay về Cause and Solution chủ đề: Anti-social behaviour and lack of respect
Đề bài: There is a general increase in anti-social behaviours and lack of respect for others. What are the causes and solutions?
Anti-social behavior and a lack of respect for others are pervasive problems in today’s society, which can be attributed to various factors. Some individuals may adopt such attitudes as a result of living in environments where violence and discrimination are commonplace. In contrast, others may be the result of a lack of parental guidance, as parents may be too busy with work to provide their children with adequate moral education. Regardless of the cause, these issues must be addressed through measures such as improved parental education and stricter enforcement of laws against violent and discriminatory behavior.
The prevalence of these issues in society has a range of root causes. For instance, children from families that hold sexist attitudes may develop disrespectful attitudes towards women. In contrast, children who receive insufficient guidance on social etiquette may display ill-mannered behavior that goes unchecked.
To mitigate these problems, governments and families alike must take steps to address the issue. On a national level, governments must enforce laws on violent and discriminatory acts more stringently to deter individuals from engaging in such behavior. On an individual level, parents must play a role in guiding their children’s moral development, reprimanding them for any disrespectful behavior, and instilling in them a sense of social responsibility. By doing so, parents can help ensure that their children develop respectful attitudes towards others.
In conclusion, anti-social behavior and disrespect towards others can stem from a variety of factors, including a lack of parental guidance and social problems. Addressing these issues requires measures such as improved parental education and stricter enforcement of laws against violent and discriminatory behavior.
5. Essay mẫu về Cause and Solution chủ đề: Children and television
Đề bài: Studies have suggested that children watch much more television than they did in the past and spend less time on active or creative things. What are the reasons and what measures should be taken to encourage children to spend more time on active or creative things?
Excessive television watching and the lack of engagement in active or creative activities has become a common trend among children. This trend can be attributed to various factors such as the addictive nature of television and the busy schedules of parents. Addressing this issue requires parents to take action by setting limits on television time and spending more quality time with their children engaging in activities.
The addictive nature of television and the captivating content, such as vivid and colourful animation, provided by channels like Cartoon Network and Disney Channel, contribute to the excessive time spent in front of the television screen by children. Additionally, parents, who are often busy with work, tend to prefer activities that do not require much attention from them, such as watching television.
To address this issue, parents can take several measures. Firstly, they can limit their child’s television time by activating parental control mode and setting a fixed operating time limit on their television set. Secondly, parents can engage in outdoor or creative activities with their children, such as forming a family sport team that practices regularly, which could be more appealing to children than television.
In conclusion, the excessive amount of time spent by children in front of television screens and the lack of engagement in active or creative activities can be attributed to the addictive nature of television and the busy schedules of parents. Parents can take effective measures to tackle this issue by setting limits on television time and spending more quality time with their children engaging in activities.
6. Essay mẫu về Cause and Solution chủ đề: Bicycles
Đề bài: Nowadays people use bicycles less as a form of transport. Why is that? What can we do to encourage people to use bicycles more?
Cycling is a well-known way to improve physical health and reduce obesity, but it has become less popular as a means of transportation. This is due to the widespread use of motor vehicles and the lack of dedicated bicycle paths. To address this issue, the government should implement a tax on cars and motorcycles and use the revenue generated to build more cycling infrastructure.
There are various reasons why people choose not to cycle. One reason is the availability of faster means of transportation, such as cars and motorbikes, which are perceived as more suitable for longer distances. Additionally, the absence of cycling lanes in many countries, including Vietnam, makes it dangerous for cyclists to share the road with motor vehicles.
To encourage the use of bicycles for transportation, the government should adopt two key measures. Firstly, it should impose a high tax on motor vehicles. This would discourage the use of cars and motorbikes and incentivize people to switch to bicycles. Secondly, the government should allocate the tax revenue to constructing safe cycling infrastructure such as bike lanes and paths. With a well-developed system of cycling infrastructure, people would be more inclined to use bicycles as a safe and convenient mode of transport.
In conclusion, the declining popularity of cycling can be attributed to the prevalence of motor vehicles and the lack of dedicated cycling infrastructure. To promote cycling, the government should levy a tax on cars and motorcycles and use the revenue to construct cycling infrastructure that is safe and convenient for citizens.
7. Essay mẫu về Cause and Solution chủ đề: Sport for young people
Đề bài: Fewer young people play sports these days. Why is this? What can be done to encourage more young people to do sports?
In recent times, there has been a noticeable decline in the participation of young individuals in sports. This trend can be attributed to several factors, and addressing these issues is vital to encourage more young people to engage in sports.
One primary reason for the decrease in youth sports involvement is the increased prevalence of sedentary lifestyles. Modern advancements in technology have provided young people with various forms of entertainment, such as video games and social media, which often discourage physical activity. Consequently, many youngsters find these sedentary activities more appealing and convenient, resulting in a decline in their sports participation.
Another significant factor contributing to the reduction in youth sports involvement is the growing academic pressure. With a greater emphasis on academic achievements, young individuals often face rigorous academic schedules and extensive homework assignments. As a result, they have limited time and energy to participate in sports activities, leading to decreased interest and engagement.
To reverse this trend and encourage more young people to engage in sports, several measures can be taken. Firstly, it is crucial to raise awareness about the detrimental effects of a sedentary lifestyle. Educational campaigns and media promotions should highlight the importance of physical activity for overall health and well-being. By emphasizing the benefits of sports, such as improved physical fitness, enhanced mental well-being, and increased social interactions, young individuals can be motivated to participate.
Secondly, schools play a pivotal role in promoting sports among young individuals. Educational institutions should prioritize physical education classes and offer a diverse range of sports activities as part of the curriculum. This will not only provide students with exposure to different sports but also help them develop essential skills, teamwork, and discipline. Additionally, schools should collaborate with local sports clubs and organizations to create more opportunities for students to engage in sports outside of regular school hours.
Furthermore, parents and guardians should actively encourage their children to participate in sports. They can serve as role models by engaging in physical activities themselves and supporting their children’s sporting endeavors. By creating a supportive and motivating environment at home, parents can inspire their children to develop a lifelong interest in sports.
In conclusion, the decline in youth sports participation can be attributed to the influence of sedentary lifestyles and academic pressures. To reverse this trend, raising awareness about the benefits of physical activity, integrating sports into school curricula, and fostering a supportive environment at home are crucial. By implementing these measures, we can encourage more young people to embrace sports and lead healthier, more active lives.
7. Essay mẫu về Cause and Solution chủ đề: Children
Đề bài: Children are now facing educational, social, and commercial pressures. What are the causes of these pressures? What measures can be taken to reduce them?
The present generation of children is increasingly burdened by a multitude of pressures, including educational, social, and commercial demands. The causes of these pressures can be attributed to various factors, and it is imperative to implement measures that can effectively alleviate them.
One prominent cause of educational pressure on children is the heightened competition for academic success. In many societies, there exists a prevailing belief that academic achievements are the primary determinant of future success. Consequently, parents and educators often exert considerable pressure on children to excel academically, leading to intense competition, stress, and anxiety. Moreover, the rigid education systems that prioritize standardized tests and rigid curricula also contribute to this burden.
Social pressure arises from societal expectations and the desire to conform to social norms. Children are often expected to meet certain standards in terms of appearance, behavior, and social acceptance. Peer pressure also plays a significant role in this regard, as children may feel compelled to conform to the opinions and preferences of their peers to gain acceptance. The rise of social media platforms further exacerbates these pressures, as children are constantly exposed to idealized representations of beauty, success, and popularity.
Commercial pressure on children has become more prevalent due to aggressive marketing strategies targeted at young individuals. Advertisements, both online and offline, increasingly target children, enticing them with the latest toys, gadgets, and consumer products. This commercialization not only leads to materialistic desires but also fosters a sense of dissatisfaction among children who may feel the need to keep up with their peers or achieve a certain lifestyle.
To alleviate these pressures, several measures can be implemented. Firstly, there should be a paradigm shift in educational systems. Rather than focusing solely on academic achievements, schools should emphasize holistic development and individual strengths. This can be achieved by incorporating practical and experiential learning methods, encouraging creativity, critical thinking, and problem-solving skills. Furthermore, reducing the emphasis on standardized tests and fostering a supportive learning environment can help relieve academic pressure on children.
In order to mitigate social pressure, it is crucial to promote inclusivity and diversity in society. Schools and communities should foster an environment that embraces individual differences and promotes acceptance. Implementing anti-bullying programs, organizing cultural exchange activities, and encouraging open dialogue about societal expectations can help create a more tolerant and supportive atmosphere for children.
Regarding commercial pressure, it is important to regulate advertising targeted at children. Governments should enforce stricter regulations on the marketing practices employed by companies, particularly those aimed at young individuals. This can include restrictions on advertising content, limiting the use of persuasive techniques, and monitoring advertisements on digital platforms. Additionally, media literacy programs should be introduced in schools to empower children with the skills to critically analyze and understand commercial messages.
In conclusion, the pressures faced by children in terms of education, social expectations, and commercial influences have significant consequences on their overall well-being. By reforming educational systems, promoting inclusivity, and regulating commercial marketing, society can take substantial measures to reduce these pressures. By doing so, we can create a more nurturing environment that allows children to thrive and develop into well-rounded individuals.
Ở ĐÂY CÓ VOUCHER
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